Karmapa's title, "the Great Treasure Dharma-Raja", came from the fifth Karmapa Deshin Shekpa (1384-1415), who was conferred the title by Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty. Deshin Shekpa, born in present-day Nyingchi of Tibet, was recognized by the second Shamarpa Living Buddha Khakyod Wangpo as the reincarnated soul boy of Rolpai Dorje. At the invitation of Emperor Chengzu (1360-1424) of the Ming Dynasty, he visited the court in Nanjing in 1407 and blessed for the Emperor Taizu and his queen at Linggu Temple. He also preached initiation and tantric teachings for Emperor Chengzu and his queen and all his civil and military officials (Fig. 2; refer to Illustration 1). It was said that at the time, the Buddha's image appeared, and Emperor Chengzu ordered to paint it down with inscriptions and then conferred it to Deshin Shekpa. The painting was passed down to date. Emperor Chengzu granted him the title of "Best in the world, Complete Enlightenment and Infinite Wisdom, Propagating Doctrine and Responding Appeal, Buddha of Great Compassion, Leader of the Buddhist Faith Beneath the Sky in the West", called Great Treasure Dharma-Raja for short (Fig. 3)
With the support from the imperial court, Living Buddhas were able to contribute much to religious and cultural development. After the death of the queen of Emperor Chengzu of the Ming Dynasty, Deshin Shekpa received the imperial command and went to the Mount Wutai to preside over the queen's salvation. In 1408, upon his setting out to leave for Tibet, Emperor Chengzu rewarded him a large number of precious gifts, including the Yongle Edition of Tibetan Tripitaka "Kanjur" engraved in Nanjing in 1410 and a gold copper Buddha statue made in the Yongle's Palace. The Yongle Edition of "Kanjur" was the earliest Tripitaka that was printed via woodblock printing in history, which played an important role in promoting the Tibetan Buddhist culture and the later woodblock printing of scriptures.